Addicted to Screens? That's Really a You Problem 眼睛黏著螢幕 問題出在自己
Nir Eyal does not for a second regret writing Silicon Valley's tech engagement how-to, "Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products," even as he now has a new book out on how to free ourselves of that same addiction.
In his original manual for building enthralling smartphone apps, Eyal laid out the tricks "to subtly encourage customer behavior" and "bring users back again and again." He toured tech companies speaking about the Hook Model, his four-step plan to grab and keep people with enticements like variable rewards, or pleasures that come at unpredictable intervals.
Eyal, 41, is not alone in this pivot. Since "Hooked," whistleblowers like Google's former in-house ethicist, Tristan Harris, have popularized the idea that phones are unhealthy and addictive. Onetime executives at Facebook and WhatsApp have turned into tech critics. At Stanford University, the researcher B.J. Fogg, who ran the Persuasive Tech Lab, has renamed it the Behavior Design Lab and is now starting to roll out tools to reduce screen time.
Unlike the other newly wary, though, Eyal does not think tech is the problem. We are.
"We talk about addiction, but when it comes to Candy Crush, really? Facebook? We're not freebasing Facebook. We're not injecting Instagram here," Eyal said one morning over croissants at New York's Bryant Park. "These are things we can do something about, but we love to think the technology is doing it to us."
And so in "Indistractable," which was published last month, Eyal has written a guide to free people from an addiction he argues they never had in the first place. It was all just sloughing off personal responsibility, he figures. So the solution is to reclaim responsibility in myriad small ways.
Be All That You Can Be: Protect Artworks 保護戰區文物 已至燃眉之急
文/Ralph Blumenthal and Tom Mas
It's no secret that the war-ravaged nations where U.S. soldiers have been enmeshed in conflict for nearly two decades are home to many of civilization's oldest and most prized antiquities and cultural treasures.
But in the heat of battle in Afghanistan or Iraq, how are troops to know whether they are taking their positions behind mounds of insignificant rubble or inside the precious remains of a 3,000-year-old temple complex?
The Pentagon's answer is to take a page from one of World War II's most storied military units, the teams of art experts known as the Monuments Men who recovered millions of European treasures looted by the Nazis.
The Army is forming a new group with a similar mandate to be composed of commissioned officers of the Army Reserve who are museum directors or curators, archivists, conservators and archaeologists in addition to new recruits with those qualifications. They will be based at the Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.
"In conflict, the destruction of monuments and the looting of art are not only about the loss of material things, but also about the erasure of history, knowledge, and a people's identity," Richard Kurin, an anthropologist and Distinguished Scholar at the Smithsonian, said. "The cooperation between the Smithsonian and the U.S. Army aims to prevent this legal and moral crime of war."
Scott DeJesse, a Texas painter and lecturer at the Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and an Army Reserve colonel who has served in Iraq and Afghanistan, said the new group's mission is not to hunt down missing works of art in castles and salt mines, as the World War II force did. Instead it is to provide a scholarly liaison for military commanders and the local authorities to help secure the cultural heritage of the regions involved and rebuild civil society in war and disaster zones.
The new group will also aim to inform the U.S. military and allied forces of sites to avoid in airstrikes and ground fighting, and places where it should try to forestall looting. Those prevention and detection efforts conform to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property, which the United States joined in 2009.
The initiative comes at an urgent time for a region where human settlement dates back as far as 10,000 years and includes the remnants of Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Persian, Assyrian and Babylonian cultures. Afghanistan has been pillaged and desecrated by the Taliban for two decades; the Islamic State has wrought destruction and looted artifacts in Iraq, Syria and Libya; and rebel factions have sacked museums and mosques in Yemen.
sack、pillage、loot都是搶劫的意思，不過涵義略有不同。sack是搶劫一個地方，尤其在占領之後，而且強調把「所有」貴重物品奪走，如：barbarians sacked ancient Rome。pillage則強調「殘酷無情地」搶劫，但未必搶走所有值錢物品，如：settlements pillaged by Vikings。loot則在暴民乘亂打家劫店之外，也常用來專指戰時軍人的劫掠行為。
monument、remnant在本文中都是「遺跡」，但monument常指「用來紀念某人或某事的建物」，如碑、塔、館、雕像等，如果指「遺跡」，通常這個遺跡在歷史或考古學上具重要性。remnant常指「使用或加工過後的殘餘物」，也有一個意思是「零頭布」，如果指「遺跡」，通常是指某個時代的殘跡，不見得具有特殊的歷史重要性，如：a remnant of imperialism。