2017年7月7日 星期五

Colleges Get Proactive in Addressing Depression on Campus校園憂鬱症 大學積極解決

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紐時周報精選 Colleges Get Proactive in Addressing Depression on Campus校園憂鬱症 大學積極解決
An Eye for Beauty世界為何如此美不勝收?
Colleges Get Proactive in Addressing Depression on Campus校園憂鬱症 大學積極解決
文/Alina Tugend
Hailey Kim, who came from South Korea to study pharmacy at Rutgers University's campus in New Brunswick, found herself at the entrance of the school's mental health center, terrified of going in or walking away.

She was in her sophomore year, her mother back in Seoul was ill, her father had lost his job and she was depressed and having panic attacks so severe that she went to the emergency room for chest pains.



"I was hesitating right in front of the door," said Kim, 20. But she went through because, "I was desperate for help."

It is not new that the number of college students who say they are facing mental- and emotional-health troubles has been steadily growing. What is new is that colleges and universities are increasingly focused on trying to understand, through rigorous research, what interventions work best and for the broadest swath of students.



"The fact that students are struggling with anxiety and depression is real," said Thomas C. Shandley, dean of students for Davidson College in North Carolina. "It took a while to reach college campuses, and now it's here."

According to the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute annual freshman survey, conducted since 1966, a record high of 11.9 percent of the students in the 2016 incoming class reported "frequently" feeling depressed in the past year, and 13.9 percent said "there was a very good chance they would seek personal counseling in college." And for the first time in the survey's history, less than half (47 percent) consider their mental health to be above average relative to their peers.



In addition, the Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State, which annually reports on college students receiving mental health services, found that the number who have purposely injured themselves (for instance, by cutting themselves) rose steadily to almost 26 percent in the 2015-16 school year, from 21.8 percent in 2010-11. The same upward trend was true of those who seriously considered attempting suicide — rising to 33.2 percent, up from 23.8 percent, over the same period.

A common narrative is that too many students, especially those at elite universities, are coddled products of helicopter parents who run to counselors at the first obstacle. Particularly in affluent areas, said Julie Lythcott-Haims, author of "How to Raise an Adult," too many parents have tried to ensure that their children never run up against failure or obstacles.

"We've enriched the hell out of them," she said. "They're hardworking, but their childhood has not helped them build coping skills."






文章從一名大學生的憂鬱症(depression)談起,再提及直升機父母(helicopter parent)可能是導致這些大學生適應技能(coping skill)欠缺,較無法應付壓力的原因之一。

depression一般指心情沮喪,意氣消沉,在病理上,則稱為憂鬱症。憂鬱症與躁鬱症(bipolar disorder) 並不相同, 躁鬱症是重度憂鬱症之外,加上有躁症發作的疾病,兩者不能混為一談。

所謂的直升機父母( helicopter parent),則是指過度關切子女每一個經驗和問題的父母,這些家長宛如直升機,盤旋在子女上方,隨時空降介入、照顧和保護子女,替子女解決問題。 文章稱這些父母會run to counselors,找顧問或輔導員尋求協助,run to someone 意為找上某人尋求協助,或是告訴某人某些事情。

We've enriched the hell out of them.指的是父母讓子女無所缺乏,十分充足。其中the hell out of意為「非常、很」,與You scared the hell out of me!(你嚇壞我了)用法相同。

An Eye for Beauty世界為何如此美不勝收?
文/James Gorman

Not long ago, a physicist at Stanford posed a rhetorical question that took me by surprise.

"Why is there so much beauty?" he asked.

Beauty was not what I was thinking the world was full of when he brought it up. The physicist, Manu Prakash, was captivated by the patterns in seawater made as starfish larvae swam about. But he did put his finger on quite a puzzle: Why is there beauty? Why is there any beauty at all?




Richard O. Prum, a Yale ornithologist and evolutionary biologist, offers a partial answer in a new book, "The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World — and Us." He writes about one kind of beauty — the oh-is-he/she-hot variety — and mostly as it concerns birds, not people. And his answer is, in short: That's what female birds like.

This won't help with understanding the appeal of fluid dynamics or the night sky, but Prum is attempting to revive and expand on a view that Charles Darwin held, one that sounds revolutionary even now.



The idea is that when they are choosing mates — and in birds it's mostly the females who choose — animals make choices that can only be called aesthetic. They perceive a kind of beauty. Prum defines it as "co-evolved attraction." They desire that beauty, often in the form of fancy feathers, and their desires change the course of evolution.

All biologists recognize that birds choose mates, but the mainstream view now is that the mate chosen is the fittest in terms of health and good genes. Any ornaments or patterns simply reflect signs of fitness. Such utility is objective. Prum's — and Darwin's — notion of beauty is something more subjective, with no other meaning than its aesthetic appeal.



Prum wants to push evolutionary biologists to re-examine their assumptions about utility and beauty, objectivity and subjectivity. But he also wants to reach the public with a message that is clear whether or not you dip into the technical aspects of evolution. The yearning to pick your own mate is not something that began with humans, he says. It can be found in ducks, pheasants and other creatures.

For Prum, at least, there is a partial answer to the question posed by Prakash. Why are birds beautiful?

"Birds are beautiful because they're beautiful to themselves."




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