Two Decades After 9/11, Militants Have Only Multiplied 911後反恐多年 恐怖分子反暴增
Nearly four times as many Sunni Islamic militants are operating around the world today as on Sept. 11, 2001, despite nearly two decades of U.S.-led campaigns to combat al-Qaida and the Islamic State, a new independent study concludes.
That amounts to as many as 230,000 Salafi jihadi fighters in nearly 70 countries, with the largest numbers in Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan, according to the study by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Washington think tank.
The report's conclusions, drawing on multiple databases dating to 1980 to compile one of the most extensive studies of its kind, underscore the resiliency of these terrorist groups, and the policy failures by the United States and its allies in responding. The findings also highlight the continuing potency of the groups' ideology and social-media branding in raising money and attracting recruits as they pivot from battlefield defeats in strongholds like Iraq and Syria to direct guerrilla-style attacks there and in other hot spots.
"Some of these groups do want to target Americans overseas and at home, particularly the Islamic State and al-Qaida," said Seth Jones, the director of the center's transnational threats project and one of the report's six authors. "All this indicates that terrorism is alive and well, and that Americans should be concerned."
Indeed, the West has largely failed to address the root causes of terrorism that perpetuate seemingly endless waves of fighters who are increasingly turning to armed drones, artificial intelligence and encrypted communications to foil the allies' conventional military superiority, the report said.
"Perhaps the most important component of Western policy should be helping regimes that are facing terrorism improve governance and deal more effectively with economic, sectarian and other grievances," the 71-page study concluded.
For example, the report said, the slow pace of reconstruction in Iraqi cities like Ramadi, Fallujah and Mosul — once controlled by the Islamic State, also known as ISIS — has angered residents in those Sunni-majority areas and made them more susceptible to militant entreaties.
The report also warns that withdrawing U.S. forces from Africa and the Middle East — as the Pentagon has started to do — could serve as a boon to these terrorist groups as the Trump administration shifts its national security priorities to confront threats from Russia, China, North Korea and Iran.
此外，文中單字multiple與新聞標題單字multiply分別意指「多樣的、倍數的」及「增加、倍增」，前者為形容詞，後者是動詞，而multiply在數學則指「相乘」，如2 x 3 = 6的英文為two multiplied by three equals six，或用two times three equals six也可。
而動詞片語draw on在文中指的是「利用、憑藉」，其中介系詞也可用upon替代，涵義相同的片語還有rely on跟make use of。至於hot spot在英文中則多指容易發生危險、暴力的地方，比如hot spot of crime意指「犯罪熱點」，另外這個詞彙也延伸出熱門景點之意，例如旅遊熱點的英文則是hot spot of tourism。
Town Feared Giant Waves. Then Surfers Came 懼浪小漁村 變衝浪聖地
At the market in the ancient fishing village of Nazaré, Portuguese pensioners shopped for their fruit and vegetables. Retired fishermen chatted over coffee. And a record-breaking American surfer sipped on a cucumber and celery smoothie.
It was Garrett McNamara, a 51-year-old from Hawaii who until recently held the world record for the highest wave ever surfed. And who, for most of his life, had never visited Europe and had to take some time to find Portugal on a map.
Tall as a 10-story building, the waves are caused by a submarine canyon —three miles deep, and 125 miles long — that abruptly ends just before the town's shoreline.
When Mr. McNamara first saw the giant walls of water in 2010, "it was like finding the Holy Grail," he said. "I'd found the elusive wave."
Up in the town's 17th-century fort, tourists now ogle surfboards in the same rooms where the marine police used to store confiscated fishing nets. Out in the bay, professional drivers are testing new jet-skis yards from where villagers dry fish on the beach. In the port, surfers rent warehouses next to where fishermen unload their catch.
"It's a very interesting mixture of history and tradition — and a surfing community," said Maya Gabeira, who holds the record for the biggest wave ever surfed by a woman, achieved at Nazaré last January, and who has had a base in the town since 2015. "We're not the predominant thing here."
The dynamic constitutes a sea change for both the big-wave surfing world, whose members have historically gravitated toward the surf hubs of Hawaii and California, and the 10,000 villagers of Nazaré, who were used to having the place to themselves over the winter.
The story of how it happened depends on who is telling it.
For Dino Casimiro, a local sports teacher, the tale began in 2002, when he and a group of friends set up a club in 2002 to help popularize water sports among locals, and publicize Nazaré's waves among foreigners.
For Jorge Barroso, the former mayor, the turning point was in 2007, when he first gave Mr. Casimiro permission to hold a water sports competition off the most northerly — and the most deadly — of the town's two beaches.