The ancient Egyptians worshipped many gods. They often had both human and animal appearances. The most important god was Ra, the sun god. He had a falcon's head. The pharaoh was believed to be a child of Ra. Horus, another god of the sun, had the head of a falcon. Anubis, the god of the dead, had the head of a jackal. Set, or Seth, was the god of chaos. Osiris ruled the underworld. Isis, the sister and wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, was the goddess of fertility. She also protected people from sickness and harm.
The pharaohs were both wealthy and powerful. Menes became the first pharaoh of Egypt when he united two kingdoms. Ramses II was the greatest and most powerful pharaoh of all. He conquered many lands. Egypt was the most prosperous during the reign of Amenhotep III.
The ancient Egyptians believed they would have new lives after they died. So the culture of Egypt centered on life after death. They developed a way to preserve the dead and could make a body a mummy. Also, Egyptian tombs contained everything a person would need in the next life.