The ancient Greeks produced many great thinkers and philosophers. Greek philosophers studied history, political science, and mathematics. They often taught students as well. The two greatest of all were Socrates and Plato.
Socrates was a teacher in Athens. He led discussions about ways to live. He used a form of questioning called the Socratic Method. Basically, he would ask a series of questions. These questions were designed to find the answer to a problem. Or the questions would show the questioner, such as Socrates, how little he actually knew.
Socrates annoyed many leading Athenians because he began to question the city’s laws, customs, and religion. Socrates was put on trial for “urging Athens’ young people to revolt.” He was found guilty and sentenced to death.
Socrates attracted many students. One of them was named Plato. Plato wrote down all of Socrates’ thoughts. He wrote many different books. Most of them were dialogues involving Socrates and other famous Athenians. One of the most famous was the The Republic. It described the ideal form of government in Plato’s mind. Plato’s works became very important and helped found all of Western philosophy.