2017年8月17日 星期四

Building Boom in Boston Casts Shadows on History and Public Space波士頓建高樓 公園史蹟蒙陰影

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紐時周報精選 Building Boom in Boston Casts Shadows on History and Public Space波士頓建高樓 公園史蹟蒙陰影
Emoji Art, From 'Moby-Dick' to Hollywood表情符號藝術 從「白鯨記」到好萊塢
Building Boom in Boston Casts Shadows on History and Public Space波士頓建高樓 公園史蹟蒙陰影

Children splashed in a shallow pool in Boston Common as a guide in a tricorner hat led a tour last week, pointing out Revolutionary War sites. Yet here, in the nation's oldest park, some people worry that this city is closing in around its open spaces, with skyscrapers blanketing its parks in shadow.


"It's going to be hidden, buried within the buildings," Sonuschka Pierre-Mike, 38, said of the beloved Common, as she strolled through it the other day.

Boston is riding the crest of what city officials say is the biggest building boom in its history, with cranes lifting glassy towers into place and raising the city's unassuming profile.



The surge of construction is also plunging some of its most cherished sites into deepening shadow, testing state laws that have long balanced economic development with protection of sunlight and open space.


The concern is not merely about preserving a glimpse of sky in the increasingly vertical downtown or about the risks of darkness to plants, historic buildings and even humans. It is also about whether the city is going down a road of no return by trading away, one piece at a time, its intangible assets, like sunlight on its signature parks and public access to its gleaming waterfront.


"A booming economy is always hard on heritage and heritage values," said Jean Carroon, a preservation architect at the firm Goody Clancy, who is helping to restore the historic Trinity Church in Copley Square.


Boston has been transforming itself through bursts of construction since colonial days. By the 1970s, as the city became denser and buildings rose higher, residents opposed a proposed downtown skyscraper that would have thrown long shadows across the Common and the adjacent and equally beloved Public Garden. That protest led to the state's passage of laws in the 1990s that restricted new buildings, outside one downtown district, from casting shadows on the two parks for more than one hour a day.


For a quarter-century, those laws worked, allowing development while limiting shadow creep.

But now, as part of the city's latest rush of construction, the developer Millennium Partners has proposed a $1 billion skyscraper that could soar 775 feet — and cast new shadows lasting 90 minutes or more on the Common and the Public Garden.(Katharine Q. Seelye)




本文討論波士頓是否可以為了發展經濟而變賣無形資產(intangible assets),也就是犧牲將大眾原本可隨時享有大片天空、充分日照和波光粼粼的海邊的無形權利。

有個相關詞「日照權」(right to enjoy sunshine)。燦爛陽光是人人應享的基本權利,日本重視日照權,甚至將日照權寫入憲法,日本憲法第25條規定:「居民為擁有健康文明的生活,有權利享受陽光。」建築基準法也規定建商不能侵犯鄰居的日照權,在日本,因侵害日照權遭法院勒令停工或賠償的建商不計其數。

road of no return是不歸路,有個相關詞「禁止折返點」(point of no return),一架飛機在飛行途中若飛過這一點,剩餘油料就不足以讓飛機回到出發地,只能繼續往目的地飛,引申為不可能回頭或情況不可能逆轉的關鍵點。

Emoji Art, From 'Moby-Dick' to Hollywood表情符號藝術 從「白鯨記」到好萊塢

"The Emoji Movie" is the apotheosis of Hollywood's consumerist blockbuster trend, where the smartphone is recast as a playground, and tech companies spin their products into sparking baubles to sell to children. In the film, three emoji characters chase their dreams while sailing down Spotify streams, scaling a level of Candy Crush and ascending into the cloud through every child's most beloved app, Dropbox.


The movie cements emojis' place as defining symbols of global capitalism — a form of expression that transcends language barriers and lends a gloss of emotional affect to our cold, unfeeling devices. But before emojis went Hollywood, plugged-in artists were leveraging them in their work to invoke the wonders and hazards of the digital era. Here are landmark moments in emojified art.


— 'Emoji Dick'

In 2010, Japanese emojis hadn't even made their way to American smartphone keyboards, but Fred Benenson was already working on an all-emoji translation of "Moby-Dick." "Emoji Dick" was both crowdfunded (on Kickstarter) and crowdsourced — the translations were performed by hundreds of workers recruited from Mechanical Turk, Amazon's online jobs marketplace.



It's safe to say that "Emoji Dick" does not rival the original. "Call me Ishmael" comes out as a telephone emoji, a man emoji, a boat emoji, a whale emoji and, finally, the OK hand emoji, as if to say, "Just deal with it." But the translation made its mark as an experiment in digital language and labor. The Library of Congress acquired it in 2013.


— The Original Emoji

Emojis themselves are intriguing design objects, embedded with clues to the culture in which they are created and shared. Last year, the Museum of Modern Art acquired the very first set of emoji characters. Designed by Shigetaka Kurita for a Japanese mobile provider, the set of 176 emojis — each was constructed in a 12-by-12-pixel frame and cast originally in black and white — first hit cellphones in 1999. His designs are a mash-up of the creative and the consumerist, taking cues from manga and corporate advertising.(Amanda Hess)




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